Sports, Exercise and Health Science
Topic 3: Energy systems (13 hours)

3.1 Nutrition 4 hours

3.1.1 List the macronutrients and micronutrients.

3.1.2 Outline the functions of macronutrients and micronutrients

3.1.3 State the chemical composition of a glucose molecule.

3.1.4 Identify a diagram representing the basic structure of a glucose molecule.

3.1.5 Explain how glucose molecules can combine to form disaccharides and polysaccharides.

3.1.6 State the composition of a molecule of triacylglycerol. 

3.1.7 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

3.1.8 State the chemical composition of a protein molecule.

3.1.9 Distinguish between an essential and a non-essential amino acid.

3.1.10 Describe current recommendations for a healthy balanced diet.

3.1.11 State the approximate energy content per 100 g of carbohydrate, lipid and protein. 

3.1.12 Discuss how the recommended energy distribution of the dietary macronutrients differs between endurance athletes and non-athletes



Calculate the energy content of foods by DairyScience



3D chemical structures by Jmol

Carbohydrates by Wisc

The lipids by Wisc



You are what you eat by CrashCourse


Adequacy of energy and macronutrient intake of food supplements for athletes by Scielo


TOK Link

Justification of how a balanced diet is defined.

 Justification of how diet contributes to

How to spot a fad diet – Mia Nacamulli TED


Sustainable Nutrition by Let´s Eat Healthy

Nutrition and athletic performance by MedLine

International Mindedness

 Students can be made aware of the sociocultural influences of food selection and preparation across populations, for example, Mediterranean, Japanese, Western (USA, UK) and Indian.

Variation between countries, for example, a high-carbohydrate diet consumed by athletes in some countries.

I Love Nutritional Science: Dr. Joel Fuhrman TED

Nutrition Country profiles by FAO

Country Nutrition profiles by

3.2 Carbohydrate and fat metabolism 2 hours

3.2.1 Outline metabolism, anabolism, aerobic catabolism and anaerobic catabolism.

3.2.2 State what glycogen is and its major storage sites.

3.2.3 State the major sites of triglyceride storage.

3.2.4 Explain the role of insulin in the formation of glycogen and the accumulation of body fat.

3.2.5 Outline glycogenolysis and lipolysis.

3.2.6 Outline the functions of glucagon and adrenaline during fasting and exercise.

3.2.7 Explain the role of insulin and muscle contraction on glucose uptake during exercise.



How do carbohydrates impact your health? TedEd


Insulin and Glucagon by FuseSchool

What does the pancreas do? by TedEd

Exercise and Insulin Stimulated Glucose Uptake by Skeletal Muscle by Milner


3.3 Nutrition and energy systems 7 hours

3.3.1 Annotate a diagram of the ultrastructure of a generalized animal cell.

3.3.2 Annotate a diagram of the ultrastructure of a mitochondrion.

3.3.3 Define the term cell respiration.

3.3.4 Explain how adenosine can gain and lose a phosphate molecule. 

3.3.5 Explain the role of ATP in muscle contraction.

3.3.6 Describe the re-synthesis of ATP by the ATP–CP system. 

3.3.7 Describe the production of ATP by the lactic acid system. 

3.3.8 Explain the phenomena of oxygen deficit and oxygen debt. 

3.3.9 Describe the production of ATP from glucose and fatty acids by the aerobic system. 

3.3.10 Discuss the characteristics of the three energy systems and their relative contributions during exercise.

3.3.11 Evaluate the relative contributions of the three energy systems during different types of exercise.


Cellular Respiration (Principles): Measure energy consumption during exercise By Labster


Cellular Respiration big picture by Freeman&Co

Glycolisis by VirtualCellAnimation



ATP & Respiration By Crashcourse


Design a respirometer by Pearson


Why do our muscles get fatigued? TedED

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